Random Access Memory (RAM) The Definition and Type

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random access memory (RAM)
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Users of electronic devices may be familiar with the term RAM. In short, the meaning of RAM or Random Access Memory is a place to store data temporarily on a laptop, PC, or smartphone.

Therefore RAM can not be used to store data permanently. The data stored in RAM will disappear if the power connection to the device is suddenly disconnected.

RAM capacity varies, ranging from 128 MB, 256 MB, 512 MB, 1 GB, 4 GB, and more. This capacity will affect the speed level when accessing a computer or other device. The higher the RAM capacity, the higher the access speed.

Definition of Random Access Memory (RAM)

Random Access Memory (RAM) is a device usually referred to as memory that is used as a temporary data storage area when the computer is running and can be accessed randomly. RAM also has a function to speed up data processing on a PC or computer. RAM is also one type of internal memory that supports processor speed in processing data and instructions. Usually, the RAM capacity in a computer will affect the data processing speed and loading on the computer so that the process of storing data, opening data, and running programs will be faster according to the amount of computer RAM.

Random Access Memory (RAM) Function

The following are some of the functions of RAM, including:

  • Can store data originating from the incoming device until the data is sent to the ALU for processing.
  • It can be used to store ALU processing data before being sent to the output device.
  • Can accommodate programs or instructions originating from incoming devices or secondary reminder devices.
  • It can help your computer’s performance so that it can store data temporarily.
  • Can speed up data processing

Types of Random Access Memory (RAM)

The different types of RAM include:


SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) is a type of RAM with a fairly high speed of up to 100 – 133 Mhz. This type of RAM has 168 pins with a storage capacity of 16 MB to 1GB. This SDRAM can be placed in a DIMM/SDRAM type slot on the motherboard.

Here are two types of SD RAM, among others, namely:


This PC133 SDRAM memory works on a bus with a frequency of 133 MHz with an access time of 7.5 ns and can stream 1.06 GB of data per second. PC133 was developed to work at a bus frequency of 133 MHz, PC133 is capable of running at a bus frequency of 100MHz, but it is not good as the capabilities of PC100 at that frequency.


Mushkin, in 2000 succeeded in developing a memory chip capable of working at a bus frequency of 150MHz. There is no official standard regarding the system bus frequency or chipset of this size. Still, with a working voltage of 3.3 volts, the PC150 memory has an access time of 7ns and can stream 1.28GB of data per second. This memory was deliberately created for overclockers, but users of game applications and 3-dimensional graphics, desktop publishing, and server computers can take advantage of the PC150 memory.


RDR RAM (Rambus Dynamic Access Memory) is a type of RAM that works faster and is generally more expensive than SD RAM. This type of SD RAM is used in computer devices that use Pentium 4. This type of RAM is dynamic synchronous, which the Rambus Corporation will produce. Not all motherboards can support this memory because the technology is quite sophisticated.


DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) is a type of RAM with data storage technology separately in a capacitor so that data is not lost. This type of RAM also requires a refresh to be carried out by the CPU. RAM is designed for its structure using one capacitor or one transistor per bit, so it has a fairly high density. DRAM RAM always updates the validity of the information or its contents.


FP RAM is a type of memory that works like an index or table of contents. Meaning Page itself belongs to the part of memory contained in a row address. When the system requires the contents of a memory address, FPM retrieves information about it based on its index. FPM allows faster data transfer on the same row of the previous type of memory.


EDO RAM (Extended Data Out Random Access Memory) is a type of RAM with storage and data retrieval technology, so the ability to read and write is faster. Has a longer form with a PIN of 72 pins. This type of RAM is suitable for all Pentium computers.


NVRAM (Non-Volatile Random Access Memory) is a type of computer RAM that will be equipped with a Lithium battery so that you can turn off the computer, and the data that will be stored in memory will not be lost.

How Random Access Memory (RAM) Works on a Computer

When we turn on the computer, the first device to work is the processor. The function of the Processor is as a data processor and requests data from storage, namely the Hard Disk (HDD). It means that the data is sent from HDD after a request from the Processor. However, the mechanism is not that easy. In contrast to the Processor, a purely digital component with a fairly high data processing speed, the Harddisk tends to slow processing data. It loses 46 x slower than the Processor. If this continues, there will be a bottleneck. RAM stands for Random Access Memory. RAM assists the Processor in providing the required “super fast” data.

The characteristics of damaged RAM

Some of the characteristics of damaged RAM include:

  • Performance on computer programs is getting worse
  • The computer/laptop often restarts itself.
  • Suddenly your screen is Blue Screen.
  • If you turn on the HDD LED, it stays on but won’t boot, and there is no sound other than the fan.
  • The CPU will detect severely damaged RAM (possibly) with a BEEP ERROR CODE sound, but approximately 30% of damaged RAM will pass the hardware test when booting but will have an error when installed or often have a blue screen.
  • Usually, when we want to install software, it often fails

Random Access Memory (RAM) Structure

The four structures of RAM include:

  1. Input storage is used to accommodate input entered through the input device
  2. Program storage is used to store all program instructions 
  3. Working storage is used to store data to be processed, and the results of processing
  4. Output storage is used to accommodate the outcome of data processing that displayed to the output device

Random Access Memory (RAM) Components

The type describes the type (variation) of RAM based on its technology, such as SDRAM, DDR, or DDR2. Sometimes also referred to as an “interface.” Example: Visipro DDR 256Mb PC266 means using DDR technology.

  1. Capacity describes how much RAM data storage capacity is in Gigabytes (GB) or Megabytes (MB). Capacity is the most important factor in RAM because of its function as data storage.
  2. FSB (short for Front Side Bus) is the data path size between the Processor and RAM in Megahertz units. The FSB Processor and RAM units must have the same number so that data can be transferred optimally [See the Dual Channel RAM table].
  3. Function describes the function of RAM, such as Unbuffered (used on Desktop), ECC, or Registered (both used on Server). Unbuffered is the usual type of RAM used by computers in general. ECC (Error Correction Code) is commonly used on Workstation / Low-End Server computers & Registered ECC is frequently used on Medium to High-End Servers.
  4. Bandwidth is the amount of data that can be transferred or processed within one second (MB/s or Megabytes per second). Generally, DDR/DDR2 RAM currently lists the RAM Module’s bandwidth. Bandwidth can be obtained by multiplying FSB x Architecture. RAM architecture is 64-bit (8byte), so if DDR PC266 has an FSB of 266 MHz, it equals 266 MHz x 8 bytes = 2100 MB/s. It means that DDR PC266 (FSB) is the same as DDR PC2100 (Bandwidth).

That’s the explanation about  RAM is Definition, Function, Type, How it Works, Characteristics, Structure, and Components.

Electronic devices cannot manage and run applications or programs without this component. That’s why it’s important to know things related to RAM. See you on the next artcle. happy reading !

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